Taariikhda Xiriirka Soomaali iyo Oromo

0

Soomaali iyo Oromo waxay ka wada tirsan yihiin Kuushiga Bari oo ay isla sii yihiin Kuushiga Bari ee Dhul-hoosaadka (KBH) marka la barbardhigo Kuushiga Bari ee Dhul-koraadka (KBK) sida Hadiya iyo Sidamo. Markaas dhalasho ahaan, Soomaali iyo Oromo (iyo Cafar-Saho) dadka ayaga ayaa isu xiga. Sidoo kale, dhaqanka labada dhinac waa isku asal. Laakin Oromadu markasta waxay dhaqan ka amaahanayeen Soomaalida sida ay ina tusayaan ereyada: ayaan, xaal, magaalo, amley iyo abaanduule. Waxaa la xusay oo kale in Oromadu Soomaalida ka barteen farad-fuulka, gaashaanka, iyo waranka xilligii amiir Nuur. Tan ugu weynise waxay tahay Diinta Islaamka. Oromada bari waxay Islaamidda badanaa bilaabeen qarnigii 19aad, badankooduna waxay ku islaameen sabab Soomaalida leedahay.[1] Laakin xiriirkooda dhuleed ama juqraafi si weyn oo qaldan ayaa loo micneeyay taaso sabab u ah xiriirkooda siyaasadeed ee sii burburaya.

Dhib laga Dhaxlay Khuraafo Taariikheed

Muddadii 1854-1964 sahamiyayaasha iyo cilmi-baarayaasha reer galbeedku waxay ababinayeen ra’yi ah in Soomaalidu dhulka hadda ay degen yihiin ay ka qabsaden dadka Gaalla kunkii sano ay la soo dhaafay. Gaalla waa magaca dhawaan ka hor loo yiqiin Oromada. Asal ahaan ra’yiga waxa laga maqlay Speke iyo Richard Burton oo Inglish ahaa oo 1854 tii sahan ku kala maray Sanaag iyo Awdal. Waxay isku qaldeen magaca ‘gaal’ iyo kan ‘Gaalla’. Markasta oo ay Soomaalida ka maqlaan ereyga gaal waxay u macneysanayeen ‘Gaalla’.[2]

Hasa yeeshe madraso ama akademi ahaan waxaa qarnigi tagay ra’yiga meel mariyey Enrico Cerulli oo Talyaani ahaa iyo I.M Lewis-kii London. Qalad dheeraad ah ayay sii galeen oo waxay isku sii qaldeen ereyada gaal (geel), gaal (kaafir) iyo Gaalla (Oromo) daliil kale oo cilmi ahna ma ay keenin. Arinta la yaabka lihi waxay tahay ayagoo taariikhda Soomaalida ula macaamilay sida wax ku siman kun sano oo kali ah.

Xogbaarihii ugu horreeyay oo ogaaday in ra’yigaasi qaldan yahay wuxuu ahaa Oscar Neumann kadib markuu kula kulmay 1902 dii qabiil Soomaali ah oo qadiim ah (Bayso) harada Abaaya, xadkii Oromo, Sidamo, iyo Jiido ee waagaas. Wuxuu soo jeediyay in tariikhda Soomaalidu ka fac weyn tahay sida loo qaatay. Laakin xogtiisa lama danayn ama dhab looma ogaan.

Si kastabee, qaladkaas waxaa la bilaabay in la saxo bartamaha 1960-aadki. Herbert lewis (1962 iyo 1966) Harold Fleming (1964) iyo E. Turton (1975) waxay sharxeen in waxa kaliya oo caddeen loo hayaa ay tahay in Soomaalidu waqti dheer ku sugnaayeen dhulkooda; marka ay Oromadu ku sugnaayeen oo kaliya dhul Galbeed ka xiga Nageyle oo ah manbaca koonfureed ee wabiga Jubba ka hor qarnikii 16aad.[3] Ra’yigaas waqtigaas ayaa la tuuray marka laga reebo I.M. Lewis oo isku sii dhajiyay sabab aan la garanayn owgeed, iyo hadaaqa Soomaalida ee jahliga ku dhisan.[4]

Shan qarni ka hor, degaanka Kuushiyiinta Bari oo dhan ilaa 80% waxaa deganaa Soomaali, dad ahaanna kaligood ayaa ka badnaa inta kale oo dhan. Waagaas, degaanka Oromo wuxuu u dhigmay wax ku dhow 5% dhulkii markaas Soomaalidu deganeyd. Oromo waxaa labo jeer ka dhul weynaa qabiilkii Soomaaliyeed ee Madalle oo dhulkiisu ahaa min koonfurta bari ee Oromo ilaa waqooyiga Mombasa. Cilmibaaris dheeraad ahi waxay tustay in ugu yaraan afar marxalad-luqadeed oo Af soomaaligu soo maray ay ka maqan yihiin Afka Oromada; sidaas owgeedna, ugu yaraan 2,000 oo sano oo farqi ah ayaa u dhexeeya tadawurka labada luqadood.[5]

Soohdintii labada Dhinac ee Qarniga 16aad ka Hor

Waxa ugu muhiimsan oo laga ogyahay soohdintii Soomaali iyo Oromo ee qarnigii 16aad ka hor, waa iyadoo Oromo ku sugnaayeen galbeedka Nageyle. Inay halkaas ku ekaayeen waxaa tustay khariidada Fra Mauro oo ‘Gaalla’ ku meeleeysay 1460-kii galbeedka Nageyle. Fra Mauro oo ahaa dalyaqaan Boortaqiis ah wuxuu xogta ka helay socoto Muslim ama Nasaaro ah waayo Boortaqiisku waxay xeebaha Geeska Afrika soo gaareen 1498. Bahrey, oo usagu kuba sugnaa aagga harada Abaaya. Waqti ku dhow 1550kii ay soo qaadeyeen duulaankooda xooggan, wuxuu si cad u sheegay in dhulkoodu ahaa Bariga iyo Koonfurta bari ee Abaaya.[6] Isla markaas, qoraalladii badnaa ee ka hadlay loolankii Awdal iyo Amxaara ama Soomaali iyo Xabashi ee 1279-1543 marna ma soo qaadin Oromo ama Gaalla marka ay soo qaadeen, matalan, Hadiya, Guraage-Silte, Maaya, iyo xataa kooxo reer Omo ah.

Xogta Fra Mauro iyo Bahrey waxaa taageeraya xog Oromo naftigooda laga helay. Oromo waxay caddeeyeen kuwa ay ahaayeen dadka taariikh ahaan ay soohdinta la lahaayeen marka ay qarnigii 16aad duulaankooda bilaabeen. Dadkaas waxaa ka mid ahaa labo qabiil oo Soomaali ah oo kala ah Jiido iyo Madalle. Loolan ayaa ka dhexeeyay, sida horay loo sharxay:

“During the earlier phase of the incursion, Oromo applied the name ‘Sidamo’ to Amhara because Sidamo were the historical encounters of Oromo to the NW and N. Besides Jiida, Oromo initially invaded the Amhara-controlled areas in western Bali and eastern Hadiya i.e. NW and N. And that is why they confused Sidamo with Amhara. On the same token, Oromo has employed for the Somalis the names Jiida and Gabra until late 19th century. This was because that Jiida were their historical encounters to the NE and E, while Gabra were so to the SE. At the beginning of the invasion, most of Jiida were subdued and were Oromized eventually in Bali. But a section of them fled to Qallaafe and then to Lower Shabeelle as a section of Garre did it due to the same reason. Gabra were the ancient powerful Somali tribe of Madalle who were all way down to the coast (the Portuguese attacked them in the north of Mombasa in 1505). The southern bound of Oromo expansion also subdued them from around 1620 and consequently named them Gabra which means servant.”[7]

Jiido waxay ahaayeen dadka asalka u ahaa dhulka Baali oo ah dhanka Koonfureed ee manbaca Shabeelle. Marka Amxaaradu 1334-tii halkaas ka qabsadeen Awdal, waxay heleen in biyahaas lagu magacaabo ‘Wabi’. Sidoo kale, marka Oromadu 1550-kii qabsatay halkaas biyaha magacoodu weli wuxuu sii ahaa ‘Wabi’. Xaqiiqda ah in Amhaara iyo Oromo midkoodna uuna waligii wabigaas ku magacaabin waxaan ka ahayn Wabi Shabeelle, waxey caddeyneysaa in dadkii taariikhiga ahaa ee daganaa labada dhinac ee manbaca Shabeelle ay ahaayeen Soomaali. Waxay ahaayeen Jiido iyo Bayso oo oollaa (yaalay) dhanka koonfureed iyo Gaatur oo oollaa dhanka waqooyi. Xilligii Islaamka waxaa ku soo biiray Soomaali kale oo ka kala yimi waqooyi iyo koonfur.

Sidaas ayuu ahaa degaanka taariikhiga ah ee Oromo iyo dadkii ayaka ku hareeraysnaa oo ay dul mareen markay bilaabeen inay waqooyi iyo koonfur u fidaan qarnigii 16aad.

La soco qaybta 2aad:

Duulaankii Oromo ee Qarniga 16aad

W/Q:-Saciid Shidaad X. Xussein

saidshidad@gmail.com

SHARE

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here